Antioxidant activities, metal contents, total phenolics and flavonoids of seven Morchella species
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Seven Morchella species were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, chelating effect and scavenging effect (%) on the stable ABTS(center dot+), in addition to their heavy metals, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid system, the most active mushrooms were M. esculenta var. umbrina and M. angusticeps. In the case of DPPH, methanol extract of M. conica showed high antioxidant activity. The reducing power of the methanol extracts of mushrooms increased with concentration. Chelating capacity of the extracts was also increased with the concentration. On the other hand. in 40 mu g ml(-1) concentration, methanol extract of M. conica, exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (78.66 +/- 2.07%) when reacted with the ABTS(center dot+) radical. Amounts of seven elements (Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg) and five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Al) were also determined in all species. M. conica was found to have the highest phenolic content among the samples. Flavonoid content of M. rotunda was also found superior (0.59 +/- 0.01 mu g QEs/mg extract). 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.