Efficacy of Chlorhexidine Gluconate During Surgery for Hydatid Cyst
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Dissemination of protoscolices-rich fluid during surgery for hydatid cyst disease is a major cause of recurrence. Instillation of a scolicidal agent into a hepatic hydatid cyst before opening is the most commonly employed measure to prevent this serious complication. In this clinical study, the efficacy of 0.04% chlorhexidine gluconate (Chx-Glu) during hydatid cyst surgery was tested, and early-term results were evaluated. A total of 30 consecutive patients with 45 liver cysts were studied. Only type I and type II cysts were included. Cysts were punctured, and fluid was aspirated. The viability of protoscolices in this fluid was determined. Chx-Glu 0.04% was instilled into the cyst cavity. After 5 minutes of exposure, the cyst fluid was reaspirated and evaluated for the viability of protoscolices. Imprints of the germinative membranes were determined for protoscolices viability. All protoscolices in 45 cysts evaluated were killed by 5 minutes of exposure to 0.04% Chx-Glu. The whole of the germinative membrane imprints contained dead protoscolices. Chx-Glu 0.04% did not cause any adverse effect on biliary tracts in communication with cysts. There was no recurrence during the 2-year follow-up period. There were also no mortality and no cavity-related complications. This study shows that intracystic injection of 0.04% Chx-Glu is an effective measure against the dissemination of viable protoscolices. In addition, Chx-Glu is the most convenient scolicidal agent as per the criteria defined by the World Health Organization. Therefore, it can be used safely during hydatid cyst surgery. However, there remains the need to perform advanced comparative clinical studies on the efficacy of Chx-Glu and other scolicidal agents.