Addition of Dexmedetomidine or Lornoxicam to Prilocaine in Intravenous Regional Anaesthesia for Hand or Forearm Surgery A Randomized Controlled Study
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Background and objectives: Intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) is a simple and cost-effective technique that is ideally suited for surgery involving the distal arm. This study compared the effect of lornoxicam or dexmedetomidine in IVRA with prilocaine in patients who underwent hand or forearm surgery. Methods: This randomized, double-blind study enrolled 75 patients scheduled for hand or forearm surgery. IVRA was achieved with 2% prilocaine 3 mg/kg in the control group (n = 25), 2% prilocaine 3 mg/kg plus dexmedetomidine 0.5 mu g/kg in the dexmedetomidine group (n = 25), and 2% prilocaine 3 mg/kg plus lornoxicam 8 mg in the lornoxicam group (n = 25). In all groups, 0.9% NaCl solution was added to make up a total volume of 40 mL. Sensory and motor block onset and recovery times, haemodynamic variables, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain and sedation scores, duration of analgesia, total analgesic consumption over 24 hours, adverse effects and quality of anaesthesia were recorded. Results: Sensory block onset was shorter and sensory block recovery time longer in the dexmedetomidine group compared with the lornoxicam and control groups (p < 0.05). Sensory and motor block recovery times and duration of analgesia for tourniquet were prolonged in the dexmedetomidine and lornoxicam groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Median VAS scores for tourniquet pain in the dexmedetomidine and lornoxicam groups were lower than that of the control group at 15 and 30 minutes (p < 0.05). Postoperatively, the duration of analgesia time was longer and median VAS scores were lower during the first 12 hours in the dexmedetomidine and lornoxicam groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Total analgesic consumption over 24 hours was lower in the dexmedetomidine and lomoxicam groups compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Anaesthesia quality as determined by the anaesthesiologist was better in the dexmedetomidine and lomoxicam group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Addition of dexmedetomidine or lornoxicam to prilocaine in IVRA decreased VAS pain scores, improved anaesthesia quality and decreased analgesic requirement. We suggest that addition of dexmedetomidine or lornoxicam at the doses used in this study to IVRA with prilocaine in this setting can be useful without causing adverse effects. No hypotension, bradycardia or hypoxia requiring treatment was seen in any of the patients. Addition of dexmedetomidine had a more potent effect, shortening sensory block onset time and prolonging sensory block recovery time more than lornoxicam.