Nifedipine Enhances the Relaxant Effects of Cyclo-Oxygenase Inhibitors on the Bovine Ciliary Muscle
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Background/Aims: The inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes and the blockade of Ca2+ channels play an important role in the regulation of smooth muscle relaxation. This study was designed to investigate the relaxant effects of celecoxib, DFU (5,5-dimethyl-3-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-(4-methylsulphonyl)phenyl-2(5H)-furanone), and indomethacin, cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1 and -2) inhibitors, in the absence or presence of a nifedipine, L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, on bovine ciliary muscle. Methods: Ciliary muscle strips (n = 12) were mounted in organ baths and tested for changes in isometric tension in response to celecoxib, DFU, and indomethacin. The relaxant effects of celecoxib, DFU, and indomethacin on carbachol-induced contractions in the presence or absence of nifedipine were investigated. Results: Celecoxib (10(-7)-10(-4) M), DFU (10(-7)-10(-4) M), indomethacin (10(-7)-10(-4) M), and nifedipine (10(-7)-10(-4) M) inhibited the carbachol-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. The Em x value of indomethacin was significantly higher than the E-max values of celecoxib and DFU in ciliary muscle (P < 0.05), with no significant change in pD(2) values (P > 0.05). The relaxation responses by celecoxib, DFU, and indomethacin were significantly increased in the presence of nifedipine (10(-6) M). There were no significant differences between pEC50 and values of celecoxib, DFU, and indomethacin in the absence of nifedipine (10-6 M) (P > 0.05), but E-max values were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that the celecoxib, DFU, and indomethacin cause relaxation in ciliary muscle precontracted with carbachol. Blockade of calcium channels with nifedipine in ciliary muscle may increase the relaxant effect of celecoxib, DFU, and indomethacin. The topical or systemic use of celecoxib, DFU, and indomethacin with nifedipine can cause blurred near vision due to ciliary muscle relaxation, and in ocular pain conditions caused by ciliary spasm, the pain can be decreased more easily by combined use of these drugs.