The place of computed tomography as a guidance modality in percutaneous nephrostomy: Analysis of a 10-year single-center experience
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Background: Percutaneous nephrostomy ( PCN) has been established as an effective technique for urinary decompression or diversion. This procedure may be performed with the guidance of fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, a combination of fluoroscopy and ultrasonography, computed tomography ( CT), or magnetic resonance imaging. Purpose: To retrospectively review experience with CT- guided PCN over a 10- year period in a single center. Material and Methods: All CT- guided PCN procedures performed in adults at our institution between 1995 and 2005 were evaluated. In 882 patients, 1113 nephrostomy catheters were inserted. Interventional radiologists or radiology residents under direct attending supervision inserted all catheters. During the PCN procedure, bleeding, sepsis, and injuries to adjacent organs were regarded as major complications. Clinical events requiring nominal therapy with no sequelae were regarded as minor complications. Results: PCN procedures were performed via 1 - 3 punctures in patients with grades 0 - 1 and 2 hydronephrosis, and via 1 - 2 punctures in patients with grade 3 hydronephrosis. They were carried out with a procedure time ranging from 9 to 26 min. All PCNs were considered as technically successful, and no major complications were observed. There were minor complications including transient macroscopic hematuria ( 28.6%, 19.9%, and 4.9% in patients with hydronephrosis grades 0 - 1, 2, and 3, respectively) and perirenal hematomas in a total of eight patients. No patient required additional intervention secondary to complications of the PCN procedure. Conclusion: CT- guided PCN is an efficient and safe procedure with major and minor complication rates below the accepted thresholds. It can be used for the management of patients requiring nephrostomy insertion in inpatient settings, and might be a preferable procedure in patients with minimal or no dilatation of the renal pelvis.