Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the lichens Cladonia foliacea, Dermatocarpon miniatum, Everinia divaricata, Evernia prunastri, and Neofuscella pulla
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The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of Cladonia foliacea Willd. Hudson, Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) Mann., Everinia divaricata (L.) Ach., Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., and Neofuscella pulla (Ach.) Essl. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by two separate methods: scavenging of free radical DPPH and the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. Extracts of C. foliacea , E. divaricata , E. prunastri , and N. pulla did not exert any activity in both assays, whereas those of D. miniatum provided 50% inhibition at 396.1 mu g/ml concentration in the former and gave 49% inhibition in the latter. Total phenolic constituents of extracts from lichen species tested ( C. foliacea , D. miniatum , E. divaricata , E. prunastri , and N. pulla ) were 1.7% (w/w), 2.9% (w/w), 3.0% (w/w), 2.6% (w/w), and 1.5% (w/w), respectively (as gallic acid equivalent), implying that the observed activity could be related to the amount of polar phenolics. Extracts were also found to possess antimicrobial activity against some of the bacteria and fungi tested, but no activity was observed against the yeasts.