Failure and flow development of a collapse induced complex landslide: the 2005 Kuzulu (Koyulhisar, Turkey) landslide hazard
Koyulhisar located in a slope of hilly region and constructed in the side of a mountain along the North Anatolian Fault Zone is frequently subject to landslides. A catastrophic landslide occurred on the morning of 17 March 2005 in the North of the Kuzulu district of Koyulhisar (Sivas, Turkey). This landslide caused widespread loss of life, and damage to buildings, and lifelines. Fifteen people were dead and five were injured, 21 houses and a minaret were covered and damaged severely. The case study presented in this paper describes and analyses the results of the detailed surveys of an interesting landslide in Kuzulu district of Koyulhisar (Sivas, Turkey), based on field and laboratory measurements and monitoring of the slide area. Landslide initiated as a collapse, and developed into debris avalanches in the valley. This phenomenon caused a disaster in the Kuzulu district. The importance of this landslide in particular has been recognized both in terms of its consequence for the people and structures and in terms of its role in allowing an understanding of process and properties of landslide triggered by a collapse in limestone karst. In view of the potential for such events to occur again in this area and environs, understanding of the failure mechanism is very crucial.