Ultramafic-rock-hosted vein sepiolite occurrences in the Ankara ophiolitic melange, Central Anatolia, Turkey
A 2 m thick brecciated zone containing magnesian minerals is present at the contact of tectonites and cumulates. Tectonites below this zone comprise serpentinized orthopyroxenite and serpentinite. An alteration zone with vein-type bedding comprises four different levels; from bottom to top they are: (1) green-brown serpentinite with dolomite (0.9 m), (2) light greenish-white dolomite with serpentine (0.5 m), (3) white dolomite with sepiolite (0.4 m), and (4) greenish-white dolomite with smectite-chlorite (0.2 m). The first level has a mineral association of serpentine + dolomite +/- calcite +/- aragonite, the second level consists of dolomite + serpentine +/- calcite or dolomite + magnesite + serpentine, the third level comprises dolomite + sepiolite, and the fourth level is made up of dolomite + chlorite + smectite + serpentine. Dolomite, the main mineral of the alteration zone, occurs as coarse crystals (microsparitic-sparitic) in fractures and as small crystals (microsparitic-micritic) in the matrix, which includes serpentine and gabbro relics. Sepiolite developed at the edges and surfaces of dolomite and as fibrous forms in voids. Cumulate rocks above this zone comprise uralitic gabbros. The occurrences of magnesian minerals developed in three stages: the first stage was the serpentinization of olivine; the second stage was the dissolution of serpentine by groundwater and/or meteoric water containing carbon dioxide; and the last stage was the synthesis of neoformed minerals.