Diabetic ketoacidosis and rhino-orbital mucormycosis
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Mucormycosis often develops in immunocompromised patients, particularly in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Unless early diagnosis and treatment is established mucormycosis leads rapidly to death. A 38-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with a severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Her clinical status improved in 4 days as a result of aggressive medical treatment. She has complained left cheek pain on the 10th day and had a swelling of her left cheek, facial edema, a black eschar on the palate and nasal cavity in association with visual disturbance and total ophthalmology in a short time. CT scan revealed left orbital cellulitis and pansinusitis. Excessive surgical treatment was performed and liposomal amphotericin-B, 4 mg/(kg day) was applied. Extensive fungal invasion of the orbit and the sinuses was demonstrated in the pathological species and Rhizomucor species were yielded with culture. Repeated superficial debridement was also performed. After 10 weeks, she was discharged with suggestion of insulin treatment and liposomal amphotericin-B with progressively decreasing doses. At the 13th month following the presentation, the patient was free of disease as confirmed by serial imaging and under good glycaemic control with insulin treatment. Although mucormycosis is a fatal infection, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment may decrease mortality. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.