Removal of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto natural bentonite
In this study, the removal of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions using the adsorption process onto natural bentonite has been investigated as a function of initial metal concentration, pH and temperature. In order to find out the effect of temperature on adsorption, the experiments were conducted at 20, 50, 75 and 90?°C. For all the metal cations studied, the maximum adsorption was observed at 20?°C. The batch method has been employed using initial metal concentrations in solution ranging from 15 to 70 mg?L-1 at pH 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0. A flame atomic absorption spectrometer was used for measuring the heavy metal concentrations before and after adsorption. The percentage adsorption and distribution coefficients (K d) were determined for the adsorption system as a function of adsorbate concentration. In the ion exchange evaluation part of the study, it is determined that in every concentration range, adsorption ratios of bentonitic clay-heavy metal cations match to Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) adsorption isotherm data, adding to that every cation exchange capacity of metals has been calculated. It is shown that the bentonite is sensitive to pH changes, so that the amounts of heavy metal cations adsorbed increase as pH increase in adsorbent-adsorbate system. It is evident that the adsorption phenomena depend on the surface charge density of adsorbent and hydrated ion diameter depending upon the solution pH. According to the adsorption equilibrium studies, the selectivity order can be given as Zn2+>Cu2+>Co2+. These results show that bentonitic clay hold great potential to remove the relevant heavy metal cations from industrial wastewater. Also, from the results of the thermodynamic analysis, standard free energy ?G 0, standard enthalpy ?H 0 and standard entropy ?S 0 of the adsorption process were calculated. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.