Determination of 1-Deoxynojirimycin by a developed and validated HPLC-FLD method and assessment of In-vitro antioxidant, alpha-Amylase and alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity in mulberry varieties from Turkey
Background: Morus alba and Morus nigra leaves which have been widely used as herbal teas in Anatolian region of Turkey, were extracted twice by 50 mM HCI solution, derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and analyzed by reversed phase HPLC equipped with a fluorescence detector. Hypothesis/Purpose: This study was performed to determine the main antidiabetic active compounds 1-deoxynojirimycin by HPLC method and evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of ethanol extracts prepared from Morus alba L. and Morus nigra leaves. Study Design: A reliable simple, and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of 1-deoxynojirimycin in M. alba L. and M. nigra leaves with fluorimetric detection after pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate was developed. In addition, the chemical composition of ethanol extract of mulberry leaves was analyzed with GC-MS. Methods: Separation and quantitation were performed on C18, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 mu m analytical column. Mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid solution (1:1, v/v) was performed applied to the column 1.0 ml/min flow rate at 26 degrees C. Potential antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of different mulberry varieties were evaluated by DPPH, and ABTS radical scavenging assay as well as total phenol and flavonoid content were determined. In addition, alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase activity was determined by 96-well plate method to evaluate the probable antidiabetic potential use of Turkish mulberry leaves. Results: The isocratic HPLC method showed excellent correlation coefficient (r(2) = 0.9985) between 0.3 and 30 mu g/ml calibration points. The method was specific and sensitive with detection and quantification limits of 1.07 and 3.27 ng/ml, respectively. Intraday and interday method precision (n = 5) were < 7.3 (RSD%). Intraday and interday method accuracy (n = 5) were between 3.77 and (-8.35) (RE%). The average method recovery (n = 3) was 102.5%. The results showed that the content of 1-deoxynojirimycin in leaves of Morus alba L. was 0.103% (n = 3), and in leaves of M. nigra L. was 0.102%. 2-hexadecen-1-ol, oleamide, 2-propenoic acid, and cyclododecane were identified as the major compounds by GC-MS in the ethanol extract of mulberry leaves. Conclusion: The obtained robustness values from emission and excitation detection, mobile phase ingredients and flow rates changes showed that method was very strong. This work contributes to the knowledge of antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of Morus species, thus may be provide useful data in evaluation of food products and pharmaceutical preparations produced from Morus species.