Factors controlling stratal pattern and facies distribution of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentation in the Sivas mini-basins, Oligocene (Turkey)
Kavak, Kaan S.
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The Sivas Basin, located in the Central Anatolian Plateau of Turkey, is a foreland basin that records a complex interaction between sedimentation, salt tectonics and regional shortening during the Oligo-Miocene leading to the formation of numerous mini-basins. The Oligocene sedimentary infill of the mini-basins consists of a thick continental succession, the Karayun Formation, comprising a vertical succession of three main sub-environments: (i) playa-lake, (ii) fluvial braided, and (iii) saline lacustrine. These sub-environments are seen as forming a large Distributive Fluvial System (DFS) modified through time as a function of sediment supply and accommodation related to regional changes in climate and tectonic regime. Within neighbouring mini-basins and despite a similar vertical stratigraphic succession, subtle variations in facies assemblages and thickness are observed in stratigraphic units of equivalent age, thus demonstrating the local control exerted by halokinesis. Stratigraphic and stratal patterns reveal in great detail the complex interaction between salt tectonics and sedimentation including different types of halokinetic structures such as hooks, wedges and halokinetic folds. The regional variations of accommodation/sediment supply led to coeval changes in the architectural patterns recorded in the mini-basins. The type of accommodation regime produces several changes in the sedimentary record: (i) a regime dominated by regional accommodation limits the impact of halokinesis, which is recorded as very small variations in stratigraphic thickness and facies distribution within and between mini-basins; (ii) a regime dominated by localized salt-induced accommodation linked to the subsidence of each individual mini-basin enhances the facies heterogeneity within the DFS, causing sharp changes in stratigraphic thickness and facies assemblages within and between mini-basins.