Determination of correct zeta potential of polyether sulfone membranes using CLC and AGC: ionic environment effect
In this study, the correct and apparent zeta potential of polyether sulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes at different ionic environments were determined using streaming potential measurements. The apparent zeta potential was found by calculation with classic Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (HS) and Fairbrother-Mastin (FM) equations of results obtained from clamping cell (CLC) and adjustable gap cell (AGC). Correct zeta potential was determined by calculation with a modified HS equation of obtained results from AGC. Obtained apparent zeta potential results from CLC and AGC differ from each other, and the reproducibilityof results was found to be higher for measurements of AGC. Except for low pH values, apparent zeta potential that was obtained from classic HS equation with AGC could be accepted as correct zeta potential. In CLC measurements, underestimated or overestimated zeta potential values were determined in comparison with the correct zeta potential. The effect of membrane surface conductance on zeta potential decreased with increasing KCl concentration. In CLC, the deviation was observed from electrical double layer theory when KCl concentration was 0.1M, therefore streaming potential measurements did not produce correct results at higher salt concentration. 0.001M KCl concentration was the value at which surface conductance became crucial.