Bonding Strength of Ceromer with Direct Laser Sintered, Ni-Cr-Based, and ZrO2 Metal Infrastructures After Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Ho:YAG Laser Surface Treatments-A Comparative In Vitro Study
Objective: Laser modalities instead of conventional surface treatment techniques have been suggested to obtain an adequate micromechanical bonding between dental super-and infrastructures. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of surface treatment with Ho: YAG, Er: YAG, and Nd:YAG laser modalities on the shear bond strength (SBS) of ceromer to different types of metal infrastructures in in vitro settings. Methods: The study specimens consisted of 40 direct laser sintered (DLS), 40 Ni-Cr-based, and 40 zirconium oxide (ZrO2) infrastructures. In each infrastructure group, the specimens were divided randomly into five treatment modalities (n = 8): no treatment (controls), sandblasting, Er: YAG, Nd: YAG, and Ho: YAG lasers. The DLS, Ni-Cr-based, and ZrO2 infrastructures were prepared in the final dimensions of 7 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness in line with the ISO 11405 standard. Ceromer as superstructure was applied to all the infrastructures after their surface treatments according to the selected treatment modality. SBS test was performed to test the effectiveness of surface treatments. A stereomicroscope was used to determine the changes in the surface morphology of specimens. Results: Among the laser modalities and sandblasting, Ho: YAG laser caused the most important increase in the DLS and Ni-Cr-based infrastructures but sandblasting caused the most important increase in the ZrO2 infrastructure. In all the infrastructures, Nd: YAG laser has the least effectiveness, and Er: YAG laser makes an intermediate success. The stereomicroscopy images presented that the applications of laser surface treatments altered the surface in all the infrastructures. Conclusions: Overall, in current experimental settings, Ho: YAG, Nd: YAG, and Er: YAG lasers, in order of strength, are effective in improving the bonding of ceromer to all the infrastructures. Ho: YAG laser is more effective in the DLS and Ni-Cr-based infrastructures, but sandblasting is more effective in the ZrO2 infrastructure. The studied laser modalities need to be subjected for further studies to determine their appropriate settings and the specifications to be used in prosthodontics.