Bioassay-guided isolation of wound healing active compounds from Echium species growing in Turkey
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: The roots and root barks of Echium sp. have been used to treat ulcers, burns and wounds in traditional Turkish medicine. Aim of the study: On the basis of them traditional use and literature references, four Echium species were selected for evaluation of them wound healing potential. Isolation of active component(s) from the active extracts through the bioassay guided fractionation procedures. Material and methods: In vivo the wound healing activity of the plants was evaluated by linear incision experimental models. The chloroform extract of Echium italicum L. was fractionated by successive chromatographic techniques. Wound healing activity of each fraction was investigated following the bioassay-guided fractionation procedures. Moreover, the tissue samples of isolated compounds were examined histopathologically. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol (R), which contains 1% extract of Centella asiatica. Results: Significant wound healing activity was observed from the ointment prepared with ethanol extract at 1% concentration. The ethanol root extract treated in groups of animals showed a significant increase (37.38%, 40.97% and 35.29% separately for E. italicum L, Echium vulgare Land Echium angustifolium Miller) wound tensile strength in the incision wound model. Subfractions showed significant but reduced wound healing activity on in vivo wound models. Shikonin derivatives "Acetylshikonin", "Deoxyshikonin" and "2-methyl-n-butyrylshikonin+lsovalerylshikonin", were isolated and determined as active components of active final subtraction from E. italicum L. roots. The results of histopathological examination supported the outcome of linear incision wound models. Conclusion: The experimental study revealed that Echium species display remarkable wound healing activity. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.