Evaluation of Acute Phase Proteins, Some Cytokines and Hemostatic Parameters in Dogs with Sepsis
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the alterations in acute phase proteins, cytokines and hemostatic parameters in dogs with sepsis and to determine the importance of these parameters in diagnosis of the sepsis. Thirty dogs with sepsis and 9 healthy dogs were used in this study. Anorexia, depression, lethargy, hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, congestion in the mucosal membranes, prolonged capillary refill time, and leukocytosis or leucopenia were identified in the dogs with sepsis. The serum interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon gamma (INF-gamma), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), antithrombin III (AT III), fibrinogen, protein C (PC), and D-dimer levels were measured in all dogs. We found that the serum IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, INF-gamma, CRP and SAA concentrations were significantly elevated in dogs with sepsis as compared with healthy controls. In addition, the plasma PT and APTT levels were notably prolonged, the plasma fibrinogen, D-dimers and protein C concentrations were significantly increased. However, the antithrombin III activity was significantly decreased in the dogs with sepsis. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the SAA, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha parameters play important roles in the inflammatory process in dogs with sepsis. The hemostatic abnormalities observed in dogs with sepsis may be due to the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).