Soluble guanylyl cyclase activators increase the expression of tolerance to morphine analgesic effect
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Objectives: It is aimed to investigate the effects of guanylyl cyclase activation and inhibition on acute morphine antinociception and the development of tolerance to its effect. Background: Nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase signal transduction cascade suggested to play an important role in the development of tolerance to antinociceptive effects of morphine. Methods: Nociception was evaluated by tail flick and hot plate tests in male Wistar rats. The analgesic effects of intraperitoneal protoporphyrin IX (PPIX; an activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase), 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1; NO donor and activator of guanylyl cyclase), S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; an activator of guanylyl cyclase), 3,3-Bis (amino ethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-l-triazene (NOC-18; NO donor activating guanylyl cyclase) and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-l-one (ODQ; an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase) alone or in combination with subcutaneous morphine injection were evaluated. Their effects on morphine tolerance development were evaluated by giving these agents 20 minutes prior to twice daily morphine injection during tolerance development for 5 days. On day 6, the expression of morphine tolerance was determined. Results: PPIX, SIN-1, SNAP and NOC-18 significantly increased expression of morphine tolerance while ODQ decreased. Conclusion: These data suggested that sGC activators have a significant role in tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 29). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.