Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and co-morbid disorders among students of Cumhuriyet University
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Background and Objectives: Most of the previous studies investigated prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among university students with self report measures. Present study investigated actual prevalence of ADHD and comorbid disorders among university students in Cumhuriyet University of Sivas in Turkey. Methods: In the first stage, 980 university students filled in the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and socio-demographic form, 79 of whom were above the cut-off score of Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, considered as possible ADHD. They were evaluated in the second stage via structured interview SCID I, SCID II, Adult ADHD Module of MINI Plus. In addition, subjects filled in the self report Adult ADD/ADHD DSM IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale. Results: The self report ADHD prevalence rate was 10.1% and the actual prevalence rate of ADHD among the university students was calculated 6.1%. The prevalence of ADHD was greater among male than female (7.0% vs. 5.5%). Among the male students inattentive subtype was 1.6%, hyperactive-impulsive 0.24%, combined 5.1%. Female students were found to be inattentive by 1.45%, hyperactive-impulsive by 0.56% and combined type by 3.48%. Most of the students with ADHD had Axis I (especially depressive disorders) and Axis II disorders (especially cluster B personality disorders). ADHD diagnosis was associated with more cigarette and alcohol use, academic failure, legal problems, somatic complaints and suicide attempts. Students with ADHD were spending more time on the Internet than students without ADHD. Only one student diagnosed with ADHD reported to have had previous ADHD diagnosis. Conclusions: ADHD is common among university students. Having a diagnosis of ADHD in early adulthood seems to be associated with psychological, social, and academic problems.