Determination of actual limit angles to the surface and their comparison with the empirical values in the Upper Silesian Basin (Czech Republic)
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This study deals with the determination of the actual limit angles in the long-term formed subsidence basin in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin (the remaining part lays in Poland). Here there was the most extensive underground exploitation of black coal in the north-east of the Czech Republic. A limit angle is absolutely decisive in the determination of deep mining influences in relation to the current and future utilisation of this territory. The two CSM and Paskov mine localities on the edge of the subsidence basin were selected for this study, since they could not have been affected by mining in neighbouring mines. On the grounds of the long-term levelling monitoring of points on the surface which started prior to mining, the horizontal distance between the mined out area and the undisturbed ground surface was identified. The impact of limit angle on the surface was calculated by means of the horizontal distance and the established mining depth. Such identified actual limit angles reached the values of 36 degrees at the CSM Mine and 25 degrees for the Paskov Mine. The calculated values are significantly lower when compared with the currently applied empirical values of 57 degrees for the CSM Mine and 56 degrees for the Paskov Mine. This means that the extent of the undermining effects is unambiguously wider by 611 m at the CSM Mine and by 883 m at the Paskov Mine. This study thus establishes the existence of a significantly vaster area influenced by coal deep mining than previously expected. The identified facts lead to the conclusion that regular revisions and follow-up updates of the empirically determined parameters are recommended. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.