Equilibrium, hysteresis and kinetics of cadmium desorption from sodium-feldspar using rhamnolipid biosurfactant
In this study, the sorption/desorption equilibruim and the desorption kinetics of Cd by rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Na-feldspar as a soil component were investigated. The linear, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms adequately fitted the equilibrium sorption data with regression coefficients ranging from 0.9836-0.9879. However, both the sorption/desorption equilibria were well characterized by the Freundlich model. The extent of hysteresis was quantified based on the differences obtained from sorption and desorption isotherms regarding the quantity of Cd(II) sorbed, the Freundlich exponent, concentration-dependent metal distribution coefficients, and the irreversibility index based on the metal distribution coefficient. The kinetics of desorption of Cd from Na-feldspar was investigated using 77 mM rhamnolipid and at pH 6.8. The first-order, an empirical first-order desorption model (two-coefficient), Lagergren-pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and modified Freundlich models were used to describe the kinetic data to estimate the rate constants. To determine the rate-controlling step, the intra-particle diffusion model was also applied to the desorption process. The desorption kinetics of Cd(II) on Na-feldspar was represented better by the pseudo-second-order, Elovich and modified Freundlich equations with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9941-0.9982 than by first-order equations. The rate-controlling stage was suggested to be mainly the surface reaction mechanism.