Effects of contrast media on the hepato-pancreato-biliary system
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AIM: To determine the effects of high osmolarity contrast media (HOCM) and iso-osmolar contrast. media (CM) application, with or without pressure, on hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) system. METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into six equal groups as follows: Group 1: (0.9% NaCl, control), Group 2: (diatrizoate meglumine Na, ionic HOCM, Urographin (R)), Group 3: (iodixanol, iso-osmolar nonionic CM, Visipaque (R)); each of which was applied without pressure, whereas the animals of the remaining three groups (1p, 2p, 3p) were subjected to the same CM with pressure. We performed a duodenal puncture and introduced a catheter into the ampulla. After the catheterization, 0.2 mL CM or 0.9% NaCl was injected with or without pressure. Blood samples were taken for biochemical evaluations. The histopathological examinations of liver, common bile duct, and pancreas were performed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the six groups for blood amylase, alanine aminotransferases, aspartate aminotransferases, bilirubin levels (P > 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transaminase levels were higher (P < 0.05) in the Urographin (R) groups (2, 2p) than the Visipaque (R) groups (3, 3p), or control groups (1, 1p). Hepatocyte necrosis, portal area inflammation, and Kupffer's cell hyperplasia were higher (P < 0.05) in the study groups than the control group. However, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between HOCM (2, 2p) and iso-osmolar CM (3, 3p) groups. Bile duct proliferation and regeneration in the Urographin (R) groups (2, 2p) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the Visipaque (R) groups (3, 3p) or the control groups (1, 1p). Although CM caused minor damage to the pancreas, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between the groups. Application of the CM with pressure did not cause additional damage to the HPB system. CONCLUSION: Iso-osmolar, non-ionic CM could be more reliable than the ionic HOCM, whereas the application of pressure during the CM application had no effect on the HPB system. (C) 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. All rights reserved.