In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts from herbal parts and callus cultures of origanum acutidens
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The essential oil and various extracts obtained from Origanum acutidens and methanol extracts (MeOH) from callus cultures have been evaluated for their antioxidative, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties. The essential oil exhibited strong antimicrobial activity with a significant inhibitory effect against 27 (77%) of the 35 bacteria, 12 (67%) of the 18 fungi, and a yeast tested and moderate antioxidative capacity in DPPH and beta-carotene/linoleic acid assays. GC and GC-MS analyses of the oil resulted in the identification of 38 constituents, carvacrol being the main component. The MeOH extracts obtained from herbal parts showed better antioxidative effect than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), whereas callus cultures also exhibited interesting antioxidative patterns. Concerning antiviral activity, none of the extracts inhibited the reproduction of influenza A/Aichi virus in MDCK cells. The MeOH extracts from herbal parts inhibited the reproduction of HSV-1, and also callus cultures exerted slight antiherpetic effect.