Ultrasound-assisted alkanol-based nanostructured supramolecular solvent for extraction and determination of cadmium in food and environmental samples: Experimental design methodology
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Herein, a new and green analytical method was described for extraction and determination of cadmium in food and environmental samples using ultrasound assisted alkanol-based nano structured supramolecular solvent microextraction (UA-alkanol-based-SUPRAS-ME) coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) detection. The SUPRAS was easily prepared from reverse micelles of 1-tetradecanol (as extraction solvent) in tetrahydrofuran (THF as dispersive solvent). The Box-Behnken design based on the analysis of variance and the desirability function guide was used to optimize the key variables (pH, SUPRAS volume, ligand amount, ultrasonic time) of the UA-alkanol-based-SUPRAS-ME procedure. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graphs were linear in the range of 50–3500 µg kg−1 and 1–400 ng mL−1 for foods and environmental samples, respectively. Acceptable limits of detection (LODs) of 15 µg kg−1 and 0.3 ng mL−1 were calculated for food and environmental samples, respectively. Inter day RSDs% lower than 4.9% with an average recovery of 99.8%, and intraday RSDs% lower than 4.1% with an average recovery of 97% were obtained. Total cadmium was determined in the range of 48.2–186.4 µg kg−1 and 35.4–124.6 ng mL−1 in food and environmental samples, respectively.