Effects of plantago species herbage and silage on in vitro ruminal fermentation and microbiome
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The present study aimed to compare the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal fermentation values and microbiome in the ruminal fermentation of herbage and silage of the Plantago media, P. major and P. lanceolata species. The lactic acid (LA) content of P. lanceolata silage was higher than those of other plantago silages (p < 0.05). The α-linolenic, w-3, polyunsaturated (PUFA), medium chain (MCFA) and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of plantago silages were lower than those of plantago herbages (p < 0.05). The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents, total gas and methane production, metabolic energy (ME) and organic matter digestion (OMD) values and ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the in vitro fermentation fluid of P. major silage were lower than those of other plantago silages (p < 0.05). The in vitro ruminal methane production and community of archaea Methanobrevibacter in the microbiome of P. major herbage were higher than that of P. media and P. lanceolata herbages. The ensiling process significantly increased the in vitro total gas production, acetic acid concentration and Prevotellaceae bacteria of P. media and P. lanceolate compared their herbages. As a result, P. lanceolata and P. media silages provided high-quality silage fermentation; the nutrient composition was not lost to a great extent in the silage environment and the ruminal fibrolytic bacterial composition was positively affected. Plantago major silage could not provide a good silage quality and the in vitro ruminal fermentation and ruminal fibrolytic bacteria community value were negatively affected.