The Effect of Melatonin on Bone Loss, Diabetic Control, and Apoptosis in Rats With Diabetes With Ligature-Induced Periodontitis
AuthorYuce, Hatice Balci
Turkal, Humeyra Aydemir
Gorgun, Emine Pirim
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Background: The aim of this study examines the effect of systemic melatonin administration on proin-flammatory cytokine levels, apoptosis, alveolar bone loss (ABL), lipid metabolism, and diabetic control in in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM) and ligature-induced periodontitis. Methods: Fifty-two male Wistar rats were used in this study. Study groups were as follows: 1) non-ligated control (NL, n = 6); 2) streptozotocin (STZ, n = 8); 3) STZ and melatonin (STZ+Mel, n = 8); 4) ligature (L, n = 6); 5) ligature and melatonin (L+Mel, n = 8); 6) STZ and ligature (STZ+L, n = 8); and 7) STZ, ligature, and melatonin (STZ+L+Mel, n = 8). DM was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg). Melatonin was administered by intraperitoneal injection of a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Silk ligatures were placed subgingivally around the mandibular right first molars. The study period was 4 weeks, and animals were sacrificed at the end of 4 weeks. Morphometric analysis of bone loss was performed. Tissues were histopathologically examined. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X (bax) protein expressions, serum interleukin (IL)-1 beta levels, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) osteoclast numbers were also evaluated. Results: After 4 weeks, the highest ABL was observed in the STZ+L group, and the difference was significant (P < 0.05). Systemically administered melatonin significantly decreased ABL in the STZ+L+Mel group compared with that in the STZ+L group (P < 0.05). TRAP+ osteoclast numbers were the highest in the STZ+L group, and melatonin significantly decreased osteoclast numbers (P < 0.05) but had no effect on iNOS, IL-1 beta, or bax levels. Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that systemic melatonin treatment may decrease osteoclastic activity and reduce ABL in the model using rats with DM.